Manuscript Preparation

Author Guidelines

Submission of a manuscript implies that the work described has not been published elsewhere (except for conference abstracts). Furthermore, the work is not under consideration for publication anywhere else and its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities ― tacitly or ― explicitly ― at the institute where the work has been carried out.

The manuscript should be in the following order:

  • Cover letter
  • Title page
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Text
  • Acknowledgements (if any)
  • Funding (if any)
  • Author contributions
  • References
  • Tables and figures
  • Supplementary Material (uploaded separately)

1. Cover letter
A standard cover letter should be summarizing and focus on the importance and uniqueness of your findings, as well as how they relate to the scope of the journal.

2. Title page

The title page should include: ① A concise and informative title; ② The name(s) of the author(s); ③ The affiliation(s) and address(es) of the author(s); ④ The e-mail address and telephone number of the corresponding author; ⑤ Acknowledgements.

3. Abstract

Abstracts are required for all types of manuscripts (except for opinions, commentaries and letters to the editor) and should consist of no more than 250 words. Abstracts should be concise and should include the following information: Main objectives, Methods (brief), Results and main Conclusions.

4. Keywords

All manuscript should include 4-6 keywords, not included in the title of the paper.

5. Text

Manuscripts should be structured according to the type of article (see above).

6. Acknowledgements (if any)

All contributors of the paper who are not named as co-authors should be mentioned in the acknowledgement section.

7. Funding (if any)

Funding sources should be clearly stated

8. Author contributions

Please provide a contributorship statement by indicating each author's contribution to the paper according to the ICMJE guidelines for authorship. For detailed information on these guidelines, please refer to the webpage:
The statement should state how each author contributed to the article. Please include individual contributions to planning, conduct and reporting of the work in your paper. Conception and design, acquisition of data or analysis and interpretation of data, etc. may also be considered. Please note that persons listed as an author who do not fulfill all three of the criteria mentioned above should be moved to the acknowledgment section.

9. References

During the initial submission, authors may choose any referencing style. However, the style needs to be consistent throughout the manuscript. Authors are encouraged to use DOI whenever possible. 

10. Figures and tables

Figures and tables should appear in the body of the paper near the place where they are mentioned. High-resolution images should also be uploaded separately as figure files. The figures and tables should be cited in numeric order in the text.

All image files for figures should be labeled with the figure number (label each part if figures include multiple parts, e.g, 2A, 2B). The figure legend should be placed below each figure and should include descriptions of each figure part and identify the meaning of any symbols or arrows. Terms used for labels and in the legend must be consistent with those in the text.

Color will be used in the Journal where needed (e.g, histology slides or surgical photographs). All other figures, such as bar graphs and charts, should be submitted in black and white.

Figures for papers accepted for publication must meet the image resolution requirements. Files for line-based drawings (no grayscale) should ideally be submitted in the format they were originally created; if submitting scanned versions, files should be 1200 dots per inch (dpi). Color photos should be submitted at 600 dpi and black-and-white photos at 300 dpi.

Charts and graphs can be submitted in the original form created (e.g, Word, Excel, or PowerPoint). Photographs or scanned drawings embedded in Word or PowerPoint are not acceptable for publication.

All photographs of patients that disclose their identity must be accompanied by a signed photographic release granting permission for their likeness to be reproduced in the article. If this is not provided, the patient’s eyes must be occluded to prevent recognition.

For tables, the system accepts most common word processing formats. Tables should have a title that describes the content and purpose of the table. Tables should enhance, not duplicate, information in the text.

If you include figures that have already been published elsewhere, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner(s).

11. Supplementary material

Authors are encouraged to include only concise figures and tables that directly support the study design and outcome to the main document of the manuscript. All other relevant information should be submitted as supplementary material.


BC does not require special formatting during the initial submission. Authors may follow any reasonable, logical and organized scholarly format or layout. This also includes references, as long as the citation style is consistent throughout the entire manuscript. However, authors are required to follow the specific guidelines based on the article type outlined below:

Original Research

Original research articles are based on primary data collected through a systematic study and can be interventional or observational in nature. Special attention should be given to the description of the methods (i.e. the intervention). Cohort studies may only be considered if the activities of the cohort are described in detail and conclusions on exercise prescription are presented. The content of the study should be described concisely in the title of the paper. Furthermore, research articles must provide an abstract as well as a summary box presenting the key facts of the paper.

The structure of original articles should be as follows:

  • Abstract structure (up to 250 words): as per point #3 described previously, abstracts should be concise and should include the following information: Main objectives, Methods (brief), Results and main Conclusions Manuscript structure and order of sections: Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion, and Conclusions.
  • Manuscript structure and order of sections: Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion.
  • A box summarizing the key facts, including the intervention, the main outcome, the main underlying mechanisms as well as the translation into practice (one bullet point each).
  • Word count: we recognize that article length is dependent of the research area and study design, and therefore allow up to 4500 words, not including abstract, references, affiliations, tables and figures. However, we encourage the use of concise language, therefore this should be viewed as an upper limit, not a target.
  • Tables/illustrations: maximum 6 tables and/or figures.
  • References: up to 40.

Review Articles (incl. consensus statements, opinions, commentaries and letters to the editor)

The journal will primarily accept systematic reviews and meta-analyses, which are based on a mechanistic approach. However, narrative reviews (including consensus statements, opinions, commentaries and letters to the editor) may be considered for publication if they provide a substantial contribution to the field. Review articles should follow the detailed guidelines outlined below:

  • Wherever possible, systematic reviews should be supported by meta-analytical data.
  • The literature search should have been completed within 12 months of manuscript submission.
  • Manuscripts should follow the PRISMA checklist and each item should be addressed. Submission should also include a flow diagram.
  • Systematic reviews should be registered and the number and registry have to be provided in the manuscript.

The following restrictions apply to review articles:

  • Abstract structure (up to 250 words): Objectives, Methods, Results and Conclusion.
  • Structure for review articles: Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion.
  • Manuscript word count: up to 6000 words, not including abstract, references, affiliations, tables and figures.
  • Tables/illustrations: maximum 6 tables and/or figures.
  • References: up to 100.

Short Communications

Short communications should comprise of novel findings, which may also be based on secondary analyses and/or preliminary data but provide a high impact for the field. The following restrictions apply to short communications:

  • Abstract structure (up to 200 words): Objectives, Methods, Results and Conclusion
  • Manuscript word count: 2000 words excluding abstract, references, affiliations, tables and figures
  • Tables/figures: 2 tables and/or figures
  • References: up to 20.


BC aims to publish both experimental and observational research. Submission of study protocols is highly recommended, alongside the statistical codes underpinning the results (ideally available in web repositories, i.e. GitHub, OSF). Results should be reported alongside measures of uncertainty (confidence or credible intervals) and emphasis given on the effect size rather than “statistical significance.” Categorizing of continuous data is not recommended. Authors should clearly state how missing data and multiple testing have been handled and the statistical section should report the software used to perform the analysis, including non-routine packages/commands. Sensitivity analyses are encouraged to assess the robustness of the results.


Authors should conform to the publication ethics