Additional Files

Fairman, C. M., & Christensen, J. F. (2021). Targeted Exercise Training for Cancer Patients: Moving beyond Generic Exercise Guidelines in Clinical Oncology. Translational Medicine and Exercise Prescription, 1(1), 43–52.

Targeted Exercise Training for Cancer Patients: Moving beyond Generic Exercise Guidelines in Clinical Oncology

Ciaran M Fairman1 and Jesper F Christensen()2,3 

1Department of Exercise Science, University of South Carolina, USA

2Center for Physical Activity Research, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

3Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark

© The Authors



The field of exercise oncology has rapidly evolved over the past 30 years. Initial investigations of safety and feasibility have progressed towards efficacy and effectiveness trials with a variety of health-related outcomes in mind. More recently, it has been recognized that interventions aimed at modifying physical activity behavior (i.e. behavioral interventions to increase participation in un/structured physical activity) are distinctly different from those aiming to target a clinically relevant outcome (using a specific exercise prescription). There is a strong rationale for the latter, where cancer/treatment toxicities can result in musculoskeletal, cardiopulmonary, and/or hematological declines with important prognostic implications. Treatment intolerance, unfavorable tumor response and heightened risk of mortality are all consequences of leaving these impairments unaddressed. Importantly, the control/reversal of the decline in these systems is more likely to occur through a targeted exercise prescription, specifically designed to target the impairment, rather than interventions trying to change behavior. This requires careful consideration in the study design in exercise oncology in relation to the selection of clinically relevant outcomes, decisions on methods of assessments and ensuring the exercise is targeted to the outcome.

    The objective of this review is to 1) conceptualize and provide a clinical rationale for targeted exercise interventions in exercise oncology, and 2) provide a framework for consideration in the design and execution in targeted exercise interventions in oncology. We hope that this framework can encourage research into targeted exercise interventions in oncology and that our framework can be used to inform the design of future trials.

exercise oncology targeted exercise cancer-related outcomes exercise prescription


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